Congenital heart diseases are abnormalities of the normal anatomy of the heart. They are called congenital because they occur when the heart is formed and are born with them. Sometimes they are hereditary due to alterations in the genes and their transmission in offspring. But not all congenital heart disease is hereditary. It can also be caused by acquired alterations or environmental alterations that affect during the embryological state of the formation of the heart in the fetus, for example the effect of alcohol, maternal diabetes or certain drugs that can produce cardiac malformations is known.
They appear in 8 out of every 1,000 live newborns, there being an almost uncountable number of different congenital heart diseases, so it is necessary to classify them:
Short circuits left right. They are those in which there is a defect in the cardiac structures that separate the systemic circulation from the pulmonary, resulting in the passage of blood from the first to the second. In this group we found interauricular communication, interventricular communication and persistent ductus arteriosus, among others.
Obstructive lesions They impede the exit of blood from the cardiac cavities. Among them are aortic and pulmonary stenosis and aortic coarctation.
Cyanotic congenital heart disease. They prevent the adequate oxygenation of the blood that reaches the tissues, so that cyanosis appears (bruising of the lips or nail beds). The most frequent are the transposition of large vessels, the tetralogy of Fallot and the Ebstein anomaly.